|Facts and Myths
surrounding the history of Ice Cream..
History..... There are plenty of myths about where ice cream was first invented. Some
suggest Marco Polo first brought ice cream from China. The earliest evidence of anything
resembling ice cream actually does come from China. In the 1500s, ice cream was developed
in Italy. In the 1600s France and Spain developed forms of ice cream and in the late 1600s
folks in England had their own secret recipes for ice cream. It wasn't until the
1700s that the Americas first dabbled in ice cream. In the 19th century ice cream became a
popular treat with the advent of mechanical freezer technology and modern continuous
freezing methods. So here's some facts and folklore generated around America's favorite
Have you heard about the Great Ice
Cream Cone invention Controversy? It has the folks in St. Louis hopping mad --
and more than a little embarrassed. After several decades of boasting that, like the
hotdog bun and the hamburger, the ice cream cone was invented at the St. Louis Fair
in 1904, it turns out that a New Yorker named Italo Marchiony had a U.S. patent on just
such an item several months before the fair opened. Marchiony had been selling lemon ice in cones from his pushcart
since 1896, and was issued a patent on his mold on December 13, 1903, after having
applied for the patent in September of that year. In his application he described
his invention as being "like a waffle iron and producing several small pastry cups
with sloping sides." Sounds like an ice cream cone to me.
However, on a hot day the following summer at the St. Louis
Fair, Ernest M. Hamwi, a pastry baker of Syrian origin, rolled up some of his
Zalabia pastry and sold the cones to an ice cream concessionaire who was running out of
dishes. But -- uh oh -- a man named Abe Doumar claimed to have
invented the ice cream cone in a very similar way at the Fair, making a cornucopia of a
waffle, filling it with a scoop of ice cream, and selling it nightly after 6 p.m.
where the concessionaires gathered in the entertainment area of the Fair.
Meanwhile, a Turkish native named David Avayou, who had owned several ice cream shops in
New Jersey, claimed that he started selling edible cones at the St. Louis Fair because
he'd long known about French ice cream cones of pastry, or even of paper or metal.
It has been noted that there were around fifty ice cream stands at that Fair in St. Louis
and a large number of waffle shops. Doubtless, the 1904 Fair was the place
where the cone became popular.
Ice Cream History and Folklore
Most of the following material has been extracted from "The
History of Ice Cream", written by the International Association of Ice Cream
Manufacturers (IAICM), Washington DC, 1978. Much of the early history of ice
cream remains unproven folklore as many have tried to take credit for this delicious
Once upon a time, hundreds of years ago, Charles I of England hosted a sumptous state
banquet for many of his friends and family.
The meal, consisting of many delicacies of the day, had been simply superb but the
"coup de grace" was yet to come. After much preparation, the King's french chef
had concocted an apparently new dish. It was cold and resembled fresh- fallen snow but was
much creamier and sweeter than any other after- dinner dessert. The guests were delighted,
as was Charles, who summoned the cook and asked him not to divulge the recipe for his
frozen cream. The King wanted the delicacy to be served only at the Royal table and
offered the cook 500 pounds a year to keep it that way. Sometime later, however, poor
Charles fell into disfavour with his people and was beheaded in 1649. But by that time,
the secret of the frozen cream remained a secret no more. The cook, named DeMirco, had not
kept his promise.
This story is just one of many of the fascinating tales which surround the evolution of
our country's most popular dessert, ice cream. It is likely that ice cream was not
invented, but rather came to be over years of similar efforts. Indeed, the Roman Emperor
Nero Claudius Caesar is said to have sent slaves to the mountains to bring snow and ice to
cool and freeze the fruit drinks he was so fond of. Centuries later, the Italian Marco
Polo returned from his famous journey to the Far East with a recipe for making water ices
resembling modern day sherbets.
Most books are full of myths about the history of ice cream. According to popular
accounts, Marco Polo (1254-1324) saw ice creams being made during his trip to China, and
on his return, introduced them to Italy. The myth continues with the Italian chefs of the
you Catherine de'Medici taking this magical dish to France when she went there in 1533 to
marry the Duc d'Orleans, with Charles I rewarding his own ice-cream maker with a lifetime
pension on condition that he did not divulge his secret recipe to anyone, thereby keeping
ice cream as a royal perogative.
In 1774, a caterer named Phillip Lenzi announced in a New York newspaper that he
had just arrived from London and would be offering for sale various confections, including
ice cream. Dolley Madison, wife of U.S. President James Madison, served ice cream
at her husband's Inaugural Ball in 1813. "Betty Jackson, a black woman from
Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, established a tea room on French Street in Wilmington,
Delaware, where she sold cakes, fruit, and desserts to wealthy people for their parties.
Her son, Jeremiah Shadd, was a butcher, well-known for his ability to cure meat. His wife,
known as Aunt Sallie Shadd, achieved legendary status among Wilmington's free black
population as the inventor of ice cream. The story was that the butcher Jeremiah purchased
Sallie's freedom. Like other members of her family, she went into the catering business
and created a new dessert sensation made from frozen cream, sugar, and fruit. Dolly
Madison, the wife of President James Madison, heard about the new dessert, came to
Wilmington to try it, and afterward made ice cream a feature of dinners at the White
" First Ice Cream Parlor In America - Origins Of The English Name ICE CREAM
The first ice cream parlor in America opened in New York City in 1776. American
colonists were the first to use the term "ice cream". The name came from the
phrase "iced cream" that was similar to "iced tea". The name was later
abbreviated to "ice cream" the name we know today.
Methods and Technology
Whoever invented the method of using ice mixed with salt to lower and control the
temperature of ice cream ingredients during its making provided a major breakthrough in
ice cream technology. Also important was the invention of the wooden bucket freezer with
rotary paddles improved ice cream's manufacture.
Nancy Johnson and William Young - Hand-Cranked Freezers
Augustus Jackson, a confectioner from Philadelphia, created and published many new
recipes for making ice cream in 1832, so ice cream had to be a popular home made desert
amongst American immigrants. In 1846, Nancy Johnson patented a hand-cranked freezer that
established the basic method of making ice cream still used today. William Young patented
the similar "Johnson Patent Ice-Cream Freezer" in 1848. In 1851, Jacob Fussell
in Baltimore established the first large-scale commercial ice cream plant. Alfred Cralle
patented an ice cream mold and scooper used to serve on February 2 1897.
Collection of Hand Crank Home made Ice Cream Freezers.
Mechanical Refrigeration & the Continuous Process Freezer
The treat became both distributable and profitable with the introduction of mechanical
refrigeration. The ice cream shop or soda fountain has since become an icon of American
culture. Around 1926, the first commercially successful continuous process freezer for ice
cream was invented by Clarence Vogt.
In the United States, ice-cream cones were popularized in the first decade of the 20th
century. On December 13, 1903, a New Yorker named Italo Marchioni received U.S. patent No.
746971 for a mold for making pastry cups to hold ice cream; he claimed that he has been
selling ice cream in edible pastry holders since 1896. Contrary to popular belief, his patent was not
for a cone and he lost the lawsuits that he filed against cone manufacturers for patent
Many Americans ate their first ice cream cone in St. Louis, Missouri in 1904 at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. According to one legend, a Syrian pastry maker, Ernst
Hamwi, who was selling zalabia, a crisp pastry cooked in a hot waffle-patterned
press came to the aid of a neighboring ice cream vendor (perhaps Arnold Fornachon) who had
run out of dishes; Hamwi rolled a warm zalabia into a cone that could hold ice
cream. However, numerous vendors sold pastries at the World's Fair, and several of them
claimed to have invented the ice-cream cone, citing a variety of inspirations. Hamwi's
story is largely based on a letter he wrote in 1928 to the Ice Cream Trade Journal,
long after he had established the Cornucopia Waffle Company (later the Missouri Cone
Company). Nationally, by that time, the ice-cream cone industry was producing some 250
million cones a year.
The owners of Doumar's Cones and BBQ in Norfolk, Virginia claim that their uncle, Abe
Doumar, sold the first ice-cream cones at the St. Louis World's Fair. Other World's Fair
vendors who claimed to have invented the cone include Nick and Albert Kabbaz, David
Avayou, and Charles and Frank Menches. The first cones were rolled by hand but, in 1912, Frederick Bruckman, an
inventor from Portland, Oregon, patented a machine for rolling ice-cream cones. He sold
his company to Nabisco in 1928. Nabisco is still producing ice-cream cones, as it has been
since 1928. Independent ice-cream manufacturers often make their own ice-cream cones.
History of the Ice Cream Sandwich...
ICE CREAM SANDWICH FIRST APPEARANCE: All Wall Street Buying
Them nowa-days, to the Profit of the Inventor....24 August 1900, Long Branch
(NJ) , pg. 4:
The latest thing that the purveyors to the gastronomic demands of the office boys,
messengers and clerks in the Wall street district are supplying to their patrons is the
ice cream sandwich. It made its first appearance during the hot spell of last week. A
young man showed up with a wagon and began to descant on the value of his wares at the
corner of Nassau and Wall streets. He soon had a crowd around him, and the first man that
tried an ice cream sandwich bit into it gingerly. It was made of two graham wafers and a
slab of ice cream between. The wafers were fresh and crisp and sweet and the ice cream was
good. Then, too, it had the advantage of being cold in addition to being palatable. The
cost of the sandwich was one, two and three cents, according to the thickness of the slab
of ice cream
This new edible made such a hit that its fame spread through the Wall street district
the first day and the young man who invented it did not have enough of stock to satisfy
the demand. The second day the brokers themselves got to buying ice cream sandwiches and
eating them in a democratic fashion side by side on the sidewalk wit hthe messengers and
the office boys. All of the other ice cream and lemonade vendors saw that they were
outclassed and immediately began to sell imitations. The young man held the bulk of the
trade, however, throughout the week.
Second Source: 9 September 1900, Dubuque (Iowa) Sunday Herald, pg. 11, col. 6: A
Novel Refection That Is Sold from Pushcarts in the Bowery of New York.....
"There are ham sandwiches and salmon sandwiches and cheese sandwiches and several
other kinds of sandwiches -- a down-town restaurant advertises 30 varieties -- but the
latest is the ice-cream sandwich. As a new fad the ice cream sandwich might have made
thousands of dollars for its inventor had the novelty been launches by a well-known
caterer, but strangely enough the ice cream sandwich made its advent in an humble Bowery
pushcart and is sold for a penny, says the New York Mail and Express.
The idea is worthy of a better field, for the ice cream sandwich is not only a distinct
novelty, but has merits of its own. It will be appreciated by the child who on eating ice
cream for the first time wanted to have it warmed. While losing nothing of its flavor, the
thin wafers which go to make up the sandwich help to modify the coolness of the ice cream,
so that it can be eaten more readily. The ice cream sandwich as made on the Bowery is
constructed in this wise: A thin milk biscuit is placed in a tin mold just large enough to
receive it. Then the mold is filled with ice cream from a freezer and another wafer is
placed on top. There is an arrangement for forcing the sandwich out of the mold when
complete, and the whole process takes only a few seconds. The ice cream sandwich man is
the envy of all the other pushcart restaurateurs on the Bowery, as he has all the patrons
he can attend to and the cart is always surrounded by curious customers."
Free Ice Cream Push Carts
.... Daily Ice Cream Truck Rentals
CK Corporation also sells Well's Blue Bunny,
Northstar and Rich's Ice cream bars as well as a large variety of Funny cartoon face
frozen ice pops. We also carry for resellers and general public counter sales, Chocolate
malt cups -frozen shakes, vanilla slices, dixie cups and Dry Ice. Independent Ice Cream
truck route drives can stop by our warehouse office and pick up a reseller price list upon
proof of a company Tax ID# and occupational license. To see Wholesale case lot price list for counter customers ...click here.
Events are fun for everyone
Captain Kool has participated in hundreds of Ice Cream special
events for over 29 years for company and Union picnics, graduation parties and employee
gatherings, fireworks displays, birthday parties, Church fairs, City parades and
summertime weddings. We offer daily truck and Ice Cream push cart rentals which allow
event coordinators to choose from over 60 novelty ice cream bars at wholesale counter
Servicing the Ice
Cream needs of Metro Detroit Neighborhoods since 1976